Uzbekistan (2012)

Source: REEEP Policy Database (contributed by SERN for REEEP)

This policy & regulatory overview is not updated anymore since 2015. We decided to keep it online due to high demand but would like to make you aware of the fact that it might be outdated.

Energy sources

The country is rich in energy producing resources. It has about 1.8 trillion cubic meters of proven natural gas reserves and 590 million barrels of oil reserves, as well as 3 billion tons of coal reserves. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of natural gas and the second largest producer of electricity in Central Asia. Uzbekistan’s electricity is generated mainly from natural gas–powered thermal plants, with smaller amounts coming from coal and hydroelectric facilities.

Total electricity production amounted to 49,000 GWh (2009 est.).

Total installed generation capacity is 12,038 MW at 38 power plants, including 10 thermal power plants (TPP) with a total capacity of 10,619 MW and 28 hydroelectric power stations (HPP) with a total capacity of 14,019MW. In addition, three departmental power stations with a total capacity of 319 MW are involved in power generation. The thermal and hydro generation account for 86% and 14% of generation respectively. Natural gas is used for 92% of thermal power generation.

The Uzbek power network is part of the larger Central Asian power system (CAPS), which is coordinated through a central dispatch coordination centre located in Tashkent. In the past, the CAPS encompassed the five Central Asian countries but now is operating with only three countries. Uzbekenergo owned and operated power transmission network has 1,850 km of 500 kV lines, 6,200 km of 220 kV lines, and 15,300 km of 110 kV lines. The transmission network is interconnected with neighbouring countries with 220 kV and 500 kV transmission lines.

Energy security in Uzbekistan benefits countries in the region. It is a transit country for power trade and a top electricity supplier for Afghanistan. Uzbekistan uses its fossil fuel-based generation capacity to make up for winter shortages in countries rich with hydro resources such as the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan. Uzbekistan also exports natural gas to these countries. In the medium to long term, Uzbekistan wants to diversify its electricity exports to new markets such as Pakistan.

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Total electricity exports amounted to 11.52 billion kWh in 2009 (est.). Uzbekistan’s power system is part of the United Central Asia Power System (CAPS). The country is a net exporter of electricity, channelled via the interconnected system of networks. Electricity imports amounted to 11.44 billion kWh (2009 est.). Uzbekistan imports the electricity from the Kyrgyz Republic in the context of the Inter-Governmental Irrigation Agreements, which have comprehensive arrangements for water and energy exchanges. Some import takes place also from Tajikistan.

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Extend network

Villagers in over 1,000 rural communities in Uzbekistan live without electricity, unconnected to the central power grid and with little prospect of being hooked up in future due to high investment costs. Lacking electricity to generate light and heat or pump well water, residents are forced to rely on expensive and polluting alternatives such as coal, kerosene and diesel fuel, or to burn wood gathered from local forests, which has contributed to deforestation and further land degradation. In addition to burdening an already fragile environment, these practices negatively impact the health of the region's impoverished residents.

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Capacity concerns

Insufficient and unreliable power supply, due to inefficient and aging power generation assets, is now ranked as the third most significant obstacle to economic growth in Uzbekistan, up from eighth in 2005, according to the Doing Business Report (2009) prepared by the World Bank and IFC1.

There is significant potential for power generation efficiency improvements. All thermal power plants (TPPs) presently run on steam cycle technology, which has low efficiency (around 30%). Heavy reliance on fossil fuels combined with inefficient use in power generation creates significant economic costs and negative environmental impacts. Most of the generation assets are also 40-50 years old and require replacement and/or rehabilitation.

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Renewable energy

Uzbekistan lies between the two largest rivers of Central Asia, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. The Amu Darya is Uzbekistan’s largest river, formed by the confluence of the Panj and Vakhsh Rivers near the south-eastern tip of Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya’s course is generally parallel to the southern border of the country. The Syr Darya is formed in the Fergana Valley by two rivers flowing east, the Naryn and Qoradaryo.

The average annual hydropower generation in Uzbekistan amounts to 6.3 billion kWh. Hydroelectric installed capacity totals 1,815 MW, and hydropower accounts for almost 14% of total generating capacity. Uzbekistan maintains significant hydroelectric generation with about 20 facilities in operation and another 5 large facilities planned. Uzbekistan has a total of 610 MW planned, with a majority of that capacity coming from the Pskem power plant (459 MW). That plant is planned for the Pskem River in the Tashkent Province. Most of small hydropower potential is concentrated in the southern and eastern regions of the Republic.

Uzbekistan is characterized by weak winds. Average annual wind velocities are less than 3 m/s. However, there are small territories with average annual velocities 5 m/s and higher. These territories are the Aral Sea coast, Plato Ustyurt, some areas of steppe zone of Kyzylkums, zone of winds near Bekabad alternately in Eastern and western direction and a number of areas of mountain and foothill valleys-Pskem, Ahangaran, Boysun etc.

The wind energy potential of Uzbekistan is fair, with a potential generating capacity of around 100 MW. Although this is small relative to the generating capacity of existing power plants, environmental concerns and needs of remote locations may drive development of this potential. At present there are no operational or planned wind power plants in Uzbekistan.

The most promising sites are the Aral Sea region, Karakalpakiya, and the Central region of the country, with wind velocities around 9 m/s. A more in-depth study of the east coast of the Aral Sea would be worth performing.

Uzbekistan has been using biomass practices for years in homes and on family farms. The country has used livestock manure in many traditional practices such as aerobic digestion (composting), anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters), and as a direct application as organic fertilizer. Biomass has also been a traditional energy source for the production of biogas. Uzbekistan has a biomass potential of approximately 3,500 MWh.

Biogas installations have been tested at the cattle farm, Milk Agro, in the Zangiota village of the Tashket region. The farm has been able to use biogas for its electricity and heating needs. The “Training Centre for Biogas Technologies” was also established to analyze the project’s results.

Uzbekistan is the first amongst former Soviet Union countries and fifth in the world in the production of raw cotton. Uzbekistan produces about 15% of the world’s cotton. As a result, the country produces between 7-10 million tons of cotton cellulose waste products. Currently, the population of Uzbekistan uses the waste from cultivating cotton and cereal crops as a fuel in private household equipment. However, processing cotton waste products could be important for commercial renewable energy development in Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan has great solar energy potential. Solar experimentation has been going on in the country for decades, but a solar energy market has never been fully established. In 2003 the Technology Transfer Agency of Uzbekistan (TTA) and United Nations Development Program's (UNDP) solar-power initiative started a pilot project for the installation of solar energy units in remote villages. An American company supplied main solar cells for this project. UNDP has focused on Karakalpakstan as it is one of the most underdeveloped regions of Uzbekistan, and tends to get overlooked by development agencies, the government and foreign donors.

Solar energy can benefit over 900 remote villages and 4,500 sheep farms in areas where energy and water supply by conventional means is not feasible. The Technology Transfer Agency hopes that development of solar energy will receive more support in the future.

The use of solar energy in Uzbekistan currently consists mainly of use for solar hot water heaters. Active scientific researches in the field of solar energy are carried out in Academy of Sciences of Republic Uzbekistan, in particular, in Scientific-Production Association “Physics-Sun.”

The climatic conditions of Uzbekistan for solar energy are some of the best among CIS states. However the material for compiling the maps of distribution of solar radiation incident is insufficient because of a small number of points where the measurements of solar radiation are carried out. Solar energy resource potential in Uzbekistan is characterized by the data presented in tables below. They show the monthly and annual incidence of total solar radiation on horizontal surface and direct solar radiation on a surface normal to beams. The data represents three areas: Tashkent, Samarkand and Termez.

Geothermal resources of Uzbekistan consist of thermal waters with temperatures in the range of 60-120 оC. Despite the good degree of examination of geothermal reservoirs, the use of thermal water is still in the initial stage. The mastering of geothermal resources is foreseen by the national energy program; however, at this time there is no generating capacity in the country. Geothermal reservoirs were discovered due to the test of wells drilled for oil and gas exploration and production in the central part of Turan Plate. Main thermal water areas are:

  • Amu Darya Basin; geothermal gradient 38 оC/km, reservoir depth 12950 m, temperature 122 оC.
  • Surkhan Darya Basin; an aquifer produces 830 l/s of thermal water (65 оC).
  • Taskent Basin; Lower Cretaceous reservoirs (2000-2500 m) contain thermal water, temperature 75-80оC, TDS 1 g/l, total flow rate 500 l/s
  • Fergana Valley; aquifers in Neogene sediments produce thermal water, temperature 70-90оC, flow rates ranging from 30 to 500 l/s.
  • Total thermal water resources are estimated about 135 MWt (free flow operation) or 1150 MWt (pumping operation).
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Energy efficiency

The country has one of the most energy-intensive economies worldwide. According to the latest World Development Indicators (WDI), Uzbekistan uses three times as much energy to produce a unit of GDP than the average for Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, two times as much as neighbouring Kazakhstan, and six times as much as Germany. iEstimates of the potential for EE indicate 40-50 %, without any slowing of economic growth. More than a third of these savings could come from the energy industry

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Since 2001 Uzbekistan’s energy sector has been functioning within the framework of the state company Uzbekenergo, an open joint-stock company, which also includes coal sector companies. Currently, Uzbekenergo encompasses almost all generating, transmission (mains), distribution and supply companies (54 enterprises in total, including: 11 unitary state enterprises, 41 open joint stock companies and two limited liability companies). The other power generation company, Uzsuvenergo under the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Recourses (MAWR), focuses on development and operation of the small hydropower plants on water reservoirs and irrigation canals managed by the MAWR.

For an efficient payment collection for the electricity supplied, as well as for the introduction of modern accounting methods and management during mutual settlements of accounts for electricity, on 4 July 2009 the Cabinet of Ministers issued the Decree that stipulates a step-by-step transfer during 2009-2010 of the electricity supply functions to private operators. Other steps towards the liberalisation of the electricity market are not yet envisioned in legislation, including the recent the Law “On Electricity” of 30 September 2009.

Petroleum and Gas
Uzbekistan’s gas sector is represented by the vertically integrated monopoly – the NHC Uzbekneftegaz, established in December 1998 on the basis of Uzbekistan’s State Concern of the petroleum and gas industry for the purpose of making it more attractive for foreign investors by means of improving its organisational and legal structure. Uzbekneftegaz consists of six joint-stock companies, including:

  • joint-stock company Uzneftegazdobycha (city of Tashkent) – is involved in exploration of oil and gas deposits, output of oil, gas and gas condensate, processing of natural gas;
  • joint-stock company Uztransgaz (city of Tashkent) – executes gas transportation and underground storage, manages the units located within the territory of Uzbekistan, which perform domestic natural gas transportation and also export it abroad, provides transit of natural gas from neighbouring countries (not including the mains Bukhara-Ural and Central Asia-Centre, which are operated by the Russian Gazprom, and a number of separate gas pipelines, which belong to gas processing and gas extraction companies).

Uztransgaz also supplies gas supply via its regional departments to all categories of consumers. Export supply is the prerogative of NHC Uzbekneftegaz. Hence, the gas market of Uzbekistan is a vertically-integrated monopoly and is likely to remain in this form for the foreseeable future.

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The electricity market in Uzbekistan is a vertically integrated monopoly at present.

Uzbekenergo is the primary electricity producer in Uzbekistan. It supplies centralised electricity to the national economy and the public, as well as heat to industrial companies and domestic households in a number of cities in Uzbekistan. The share of power plants that are not part of Uzbekenergo is less than 3% (320 MW). Uzbekistan is undergoing a sector restructuring with the subsequent unbundling of monopolistic activities (dispatching and transmission) from competitive (supply and generation) ones, and further introduction of market-related elements in the electricity sector.

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Energy framework

The Government's power sector development plans cover physical and non-physical aspects directed to ensure

  • uninterrupted and reliable power supply to all customers in Uzbekistan;
  • security and reliability of the Central Asia Power System;
  • equal access to the transmission system;
  • investment in reconstruction, modernization, and expansion of power generation, transmission, and distribution systems;
  • diversification of the fuel mix for power generation; and
  • improvement of management, operations, and performance of utilities based on commercial principles.

On 30 September 2009, the Law on Electric-Power Industry came into effect, paving the way for private investment in power generation and distribution in the medium- to long-term. Further institutional and regulatory reforms will create an enabling environment for private sector participation.

In the short and medium term (2009–2014), plans call for increasing power generation capacity to match the projected growth in demand of 3.1%–5.4% per year. To meet this demand, the government plans to build new and efficient combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and replace some old and obsolete thermal power plants (TPPs), rehabilitate coal-fired power plants, and build small hydropower plants.

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Energy debates

Based on the request of the Government of Uzbekistan, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) is in the process of launching a technical assistance to promote solar power development. The technical assistance will:

  • make detailed assessment of site-specific solar resources,
  • prepare feasibility studies for up to six sites of various scales and technologies,
  • make recommendations on creating an enabling environment for solar power development, and
  • formulate a solar development road map. The technical assistance is expected to begin July 2011.

As another key initiative to enhance energy efficiency in Uzbekistan, ADB is preparing a smart meter project that will increase utility’s load management capability and reduce distribution losses. The project will install 1 million residential and commercial connection meters in the Bukhara, Samarkand, and Jizzakh regions. The feasibility study is under preparation, and the financing is expected to be approved by early 2012. The feasibility study that covers 1.5 million connections in Tashkent City, Tashkent region, and Syrdariya region is expected to be financed by the World Bank in early 2012. The total coverage of 2.5 million connections comprises half of the total national coverage of 5 million. It is expected that the investment requirements for both the ADB- and World Bank-assisted projects would be between USD 200 and USD 300 million.

ADB plans to draw on its extensive knowledge and experience in EE and projects in Kazakhstan to assist the Government to put in place a regulatory, legal and legislative framework to achieve its EE goals. As a first step, ADB and the Government have engaged consultants to conduct an energy efficiency diagnostic study (EEDS) to lay the groundwork for the development of EE in Kazakhstan. The EEDS will gather energy data, assess current status of EE, review and evaluate existing EE legal, legislative and regulatory environment, recommend actions for the Government to achieve its EE targets, develop strategies for stakeholders in the planning and implementation of EE projects, and identify priority investment areas and a preliminary pipeline of potential EE projects for future due diligence. This USD 200,000 study will be finalized by July 2011.

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Energy studies

Uzbekistan is partner of The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program.  CAREC is a partnership of 10 countries and 6 multilateral institutions working to promote development through cooperation, leading to accelerated economic growth and poverty reduction. By promoting and facilitating regional cooperation in the priority areas of transport, trade facilitation, trade policy, and energy.  CAREC efforts on energy have three pillars:

  • energy demand–supply balance and infrastructure constraints;
  • regional dispatch and regulatory development;
  • and analysis of energy–water linkages.

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Role of government

The power sector of Uzbekistan is owned by the government. It is a part of the so called “fuel and energy complex” (FEC), to which the coal industry, the district heating systems and the distribution systems for certain other types of energy products (liquid fuels, etc.) also belong. The head of the FEC is the Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan.

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Government agencies

Council on CDM
For the purpose of implementing the complex measures within the framework the Kyoto Protocol’s the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the Council on CDM was established within the Cabinet of Ministers, consisting of directors and representatives of corresponding Ministries and Administrations.

The Ministry of Economy is the national body of Uzbekistan on CDM within the Kyoto framework. The first two projects within the CDM framework were officially registered in March 2009.

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Energy procedure

Energy Efficiency Facility for Industrial Enterprises (2010-2016)
With funding of the World Bank, the objective of the Energy Efficiency for Industrial Enterprises Project for Government of Uzbekistan is to improve energy efficiency in Industrial Enterprises (IEs) by designing and establishing a financing mechanism for energy saving investments. There are two components to the project. The first component of the project is development of EE capacity. This component has several broad objectives:

  • to assist the Ministry of Economy (MoE), which is responsible for EE in Uzbekistan, in developing an EE strategy for IEs that will enable the GoU to systematically and effectively scale-up and extend this operation in the next phase;
  • to address the lack of knowledge, experience and expertise in identifying, preparing and implementing EE projects in the industrial sector through targeted training;
  • to develop an EE communication strategy for the industrial sector;
  • and to create and maintain the Project Coordination Unit (PCU) under MoE to coordinate the implementation of the Uzbekistan Energy Efficiency Facility for Industrial Enterprises (UZEEF) Project.

The second component of the project is credit line to participating Banks. The Asaka, Uzpromstroy, and Hamkor Banks will sign sub-credit agreements with an allocation of USD 8 million to on-lend to IEs to carry out EE investments.

Promoting Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in Uzbekistan (2009-2014)
Funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), UNDP and the Government, the project aims at reducing energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in public buildings in Uzbekistan, particularly in the healthcare and educational sectors (schools, colleges, rural health clinics and hospitals), by improving building norms and standards, demonstrating integrated building design approaches, and developing the capacity of local specialists in design, construction, and maintenance.  It is expected that the programmes will deliver more than 10.8 million m2 of new and reconstructed space by 2015 – a great opportunity for “building in” EE through improved design and technologies.

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Energy regulator

Price and tariff regulatory functions are distributed among several state bodies. In practice, the Department of Price Settlement under the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of with economic regulation sets the tariffs for all forms of energy.

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Degree of independence

There is no energy regulator in Uzbekistan.

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Regulatory framework

  • The Law on Environment Protection (1992).
  • The Law on Rational Use of Energy (1997). The Law was adopted as a result of the government signing the European Energy Charter Treaty and Energy Charter Protocol on EE and relevant environmental aspects on 17 December 1994. The main objective of the treaty is to establish a legal framework to promote long term cooperation in the energy sector in accordance with the principles of the European Energy Charter. This protocol requires each party to prepare a strategy for energy conservation. Therefore, in accordance with the Law on Rational Use of Energy, Uzbekistan’s Cabinet of Ministers adopted an energy saving program on 14 February 2002.
  • The President Decree on Deepening Economic Reforms in the Energy Sector of the Republic of Uzbekistan (2001).
  • Cabinet of Ministers Decree on Improving the Performance of Uzbekenergo State Stock Company (2004).
  • Cabinet of Ministers Decree No. 476, dated December 28, 1995, “Development of hydro energy in the Republic of Uzbekistan,” which stipulates the effective utilization of hydro potential of rivers, water flows and hydro-engineering structures to improve the energy supply of rural areas.
  • Main Directions of Energy Strategy of Uzbekistan in the period up to 2010 (1995). Among government policy priorities in the energy sector according to this document, is “to promote economically sound diversification of energy supply source to increase the share of coal, use of renewable and non-traditional energy sources development of small-scale hydropower system”.
  • Energy Sector Development Program by 2010 (1999).
  • ‘Program for development and reconstruction of power generating facilities in energy sector of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the period before 2010.’

Uzbekistan’s policy on energy efficiency and renewable energy is set forth in:

  • the Law “ on Rational Energy Utilization” amended in 2003 (EE and RES)
  • the Programme for Development and Reconstruction of Generating Facilities 2010 of SSC Uzbekenergo and the Scheme of Energy System Development 2020 (electricity and heat cogeneration)

These laws define legal, organisational, production and environmental measures targeted at efficient utilisation of energy resources and engagement of renewable energy in the process. In terms of RES in particular, the law “On Rational Energy Utilization” provides that:

  • power plants, which utilise RES are provided with priority dispatching right, within limits and according to schedules which allow the secure and efficient functioning of the grid
  • energy suppliers are obliged to provide energy intake to their grids from the mentioned producers according to the prices formed in accordance with the stipulated procedure
  • heat and electricity prices should provide an accelerated payback of capital investments into construction of these facilities within the terms approved by the GoU.
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Regulatory roles

UzEnergoNadzor is in charge of technical regulation in the electricity sector. The Ministry of Finance has price setting functions regarding electricity and energy products. These functions are further distributed to two subdivisions: one subdivision deals with all prices and tariffs for electricity and energy products for industry residential consumers, and the other deals with prices for coal and oil products for retail customers.

Uzbekenergo elaborates the draft electricity tariffs and submits them to the Ministry of Finance for approval. Draft tariffs developed by Uzbekenergo for electricity and heat take into account the annualized forecast costs in the power sector and the profits needed to assure the development of the sector. Depending on changes in the cost of power production, the tariffs can be revised and adjusted. All electricity end-users are differentiated by categories of tariff groups, depending on their activities, but irrespectively of the form of ownership. 

The generation and transmission tariffs are set by the Ministry of Finance. The method of calculating generation tariffs takes into account the operational costs of the power plant, a margin to secure return on the investment, fuel costs and other technical costs.

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Energy regulation role

Price and tariff regulatory functions for the FEC are distributed among several state bodies. One such body is the Department of Price Settlement under the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Uzbekistan and deals with economic regulation. The Department is, in fact, setting the tariffs for all forms of energy. Another one is UzEnergoNadzor, which is responsible for technical regulation in the electricity sector. The Ministry of Finance has price setting functions regarding electricity and energy products. These functions are further distributed to two subdivisions - one deals with all prices and tariffs for electricity and energy products for industry residential consumers, and the other deals with prices for coal and oil products for retail customers.

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Regulatory barriers

Although Uzbekistan possesses ample amounts of experts on renewable energy, the industry has not expanded significantly. The major barrier to growth is low domestic fuel prices compared to the relative high cost of renewable energy: the cost of produce electricity through solar arrays was 5-20 times more expensive than traditional forms.

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World Bank (WB). Uzbekistan Partnership Program Snapshot. August 2011. [Accessed 9th September 2013]

Inogate. Energy Portal- Energy Cooperation between the EU, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Uzbekistan. Energy Sector Review. [Accessed 9th September 2013]

World Bank (WB). Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Loan in the amount of US$110.00 million to the Republic of Uzbekistan for the Talimarjan Transmission Project. 16 February 2011. [Accessed 9th September 2013]

Asian Development Bank (ADB). Sector Analysis (Talimarjan Power Project). Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

UNDP. Uzbekistan: Uzbek villagers find a place in the sun. UNDP Project Home available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

Energy Information agency (IEA). Country Energy balance – Uzbekistan. 2007. In European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) – Renewable Development Initiative Website. Uzbekistan Country Profile. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

UDI. World Electric Power Plants Database. June 2009. In European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) – Renewable Development Initiative Website. Uzbekistan Country Profile. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) – Renewable Development Initiative Website. Uzbekistan Country Profile. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

Technology Transfer Agency (TTA), Uzbekistan. Renewable Energy Development in Uzbekistan. Presented at Integration of Central Asia into the World Economy. Role of Energy and Infrastructure Conference. October 2007. In European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) – Renewable Development Initiative Website. Uzbekistan Country Profile. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

World Bank (WB). Project Appraisal Document on a proposed credit in the amount of SDR16.5 million (US$25 million equivalent) to the Republic of Uzbekistan for an Energy Efficiency Facility for Industrial Enterprises Project (UZEEF). 21 May 2010. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Uzbekistan Country profile. [Accessed 9th September 2013]

Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC). Energy Sector Progress Report-Work Plan (2011-2012). 7-8 June 2011. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) website. Regional Cooperation at Work in Central Asia. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

World Bank (WB). Energy Efficiency Facility for Industrial Enterprises. 31 May 2010. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

UNDP. United Nations Development Programme Uzbekistan. Promoting Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in Uzbekistan. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]

Asian Development Bank (ADB). Technical Assistance to the Republic of Uzbekistan for energy needs assessment. December 2002.

Kakharov, J. BISNIS and US Commercial Service. Uzbekistan Power Generation Sector Overview. January 2008.

Olcott, M & Suleimanow Sultan. Carnegie Europe website. Prospects for Renewable Energy in Uzbekistan. 24 February 2009. Available at: [Accessed 9th September 2013]
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